Table of Contents
- 1 Family Gardening and Market Gardening
- 1.1 General aspects of gardening
- 1.2 The creation of a family garden
Family Gardening and Market Gardening
Family gardening Increasing the consumption of vegetables is the best way to improve the quality of the diet in any country. Therefore, growing vegetables should be strongly stimulated in a conception of family gardening, both in terms of home gardening and cultivation vegetable. These two areas overlap partially but should be clearly distinguished in the context of the programs of development.
The essential difference between the family garden and vegetable crops lies in the motivation of those who take care of it. The market gardener wants to make money. The family gardener wants to improve his diet by making meals tastier and more nutritious. Unfortunately, the desire to eat better is not very developed, otherwise, home gardens or family gardening would be much more common. In this case, why not encourage people to grow a vegetable garden? giving them the prospect of selling some of their vegetables?
General aspects of gardening
Let the housewives earn a little pocket money by selling their products! This idea is very well defended. After all, vegetable crops have evolved from home gardens because motivated gardeners saw the opportunity to make a living. However, this will not solve the malnutrition: if the family gardening spreads to have a significant impact on malnutrition of the community, most gardeners will have trouble finding customers to sell their products to.
Fruits and vegetables are not as expensive as products of animal origin, but their delicate and perishable nature makes them all also more expensive than staple foods. The harsh reality is that for many people the only way to get food protectors is to grow them yourself. It remains so that two ways to stimulate family gardening:
-Reinforce the desire to eat better;
-Facilitate gardening and make it more rewarding.
Most people would make efforts to eat better if they were aware of the consequences of malnutrition on their health and that of their children. In other words: nutrition education has an essential role to play. Dietary habits do not change overnight. At best, we can expect a significant change at the next generation level. It means that nutrition education requires the serious long-term participation of schools, health services, extension workers horticulture and the media. Schools have a place of all importance in this process, especially when children are associated with a school vegetable garden.
The subject of this article is precise to facilitate gardening (in family gardening) and make it more rewarding. When asked why they take care of a garden, most people say they take out a garden some pleasure. Gardeners love to take care of their crops as much as to relax in the shade of a tree planted years ago. They do not only remove edible products. Where the nutritionist only considers a few squares of vegetables producing protective food, the gardener also sees a hedge, trees that provide shade, fruit or shelter, live stakes for supporting climbing plants: in other words, a garden where plants woody plants create a pleasant environment for more demanding and for the family.
The vegetable squares are seasonal while the gardens are permanent. A well-composed garden, with some leaves, young bulbs or tubers, pods or berries, etc. provides harvests all year round and not just during the seasonal rains. Even if the quantities are modest, everything is good to take, especially during the off-season. Therefore, to facilitate the gardening, projects should include more hedge shrubs better adapted, perennial vegetables, fruit trees, stakes living, etc. Without nutrition education risk of not bearing fruit.
households are their livelihood
The first concern of households is their livelihood. If the vegetable gardens families are demanding too much effort, they are doomed to failure. The service agricultural extension service deals mainly with crops in full field: it is difficult for his agents to give advice and plants to each individual gardener. But we can set up a level of the nursery area or district that would provide trees, shrubs and perennial grasses growing in the area. The people are usually willing to pay for fruit trees, especially if they think they are superior varieties. Other perennials could also be provided free of charge, with simple means, for example, school gardens or other community gardens (see box) It is sufficient if the extension officer helps the school to make his garden a success so that the ideas of gardening and Some plants grow throughout the village. Since the development of family gardening is motivated by the concern to improve the health of the population, it is necessary to put in place long-term projects supported by nutrition education. As malnutrition is widespread, these projects need to be designed to extend to other regions.
On the other hand, the reinforcement of vegetable crops is motivated for the sake of economic development: increase in production and employment, lower consumer prices. The improvements must come essentially from a significant increase in the off-season production and better infrastructure: roads, transport, farmer organizations and market information. Rather than setting up an organization that would then extend at the national level, it is preferable to launch specific projects taking into account the possibilities and limits of each production center.
Allotment gardens in different ecological zones The tradition of gardening is stronger in the humid tropics.
The famous gardens of Southeast Asia, as well as those of the Aztecs of Mexico, are examples. In conditions as In general, the population depends on the crops. The breeding is limited to poultry, pigs, and fish, animals larger, if there are any, is mostly fed at the barn. Often, there is no clear distinction between garden plants and those crops in the open field. The farms are small which with the absence of herds, reduces the need to grow the plants of a garden in an enclosure. This modest size leads to a strong population density and relatively good infrastructure, conditions promoting market gardening.
In drier regions, crops are gradually giving way to breeding. When the rains last long enough, the harvest main is followed by a second harvest. When the season rain is shorter, there is just enough moisture for a single harvest. But when the level of rainfall decreases again, we can not cultivate only short cycle plants, such as millet. In the driest conditions, crops disappear and nomadic shepherds depend almost entirely on the products of animal origin and the picking of leaves and fruits.
In drier areas, crops are less intensive and animals needing a lot of space to graze, size average of farms increases and the population density decreases, if although the infrastructure is generally less well developed. The Vegetable crops are hampered by weak local demand.
The promotion of allotment gardens should not be limited to the regions (eg South-East Asia) where they already play a role important. On the contrary, it is in the monsoon regions that the generalization and the intensification of family gardening are most likely to improve nutrition. In Africa, it’s in this kind of region that these gardens develop and it is not by chance.
Seasons dry and wet seasons favor different crops, pests and diseases do less damage than in the humid tropics and infestations appear at a rate seasonal more predictable. If it is possible to water the garden, do not if, with the wastewater of the household, we can hope to cultivate a wide variety of plants and obtain high production. In these regions, a clear distinction is made between open field and vegetable gardens: goats and cattle are gathered herd and graze the stubble in the fields, after the harvest. It is, therefore, necessary to protect the vegetable garden by a fence or a hedge. Only in the driest regions where pastoralists move with their flock, that the contribution of allotment gardens to a Healthy diet will remain minor.
The creation of a family garden
The garden plan
The family garden is located near the house, which presents a lot of advantages, for example:
- easy monitoring
- The opportunity to work in the garden during his free moments? product availability at your fingertips Must have reasons to install a garden farther: lack of space around the house or soil unsuitable for crops; or so, which is the most common reason in climates dry, the presence of a source of water on a more distant ground.
A big or a small garden?
There is often little space to set up a garden. But, the smaller the field, the more intensive the culture. And this is so not so important to have a big garden and even less if the water is hard to find. 50 m² is enough: they allow, for example, to provide a family of five with the number of vegetables leaves it needs, provided that it has enough water.
A plot of a few hundred square meters gives more room to plant trees. A larger area, say 1000 m², is perhaps a project too ambitious, because certain ancillary activities, such as the maintenance of hedges, trails, water pipes, etc. take a lot of time. Trees, shrubs, hedgerows: the permanent structure of the garden
A true gardener seeks to give a permanent character to his garden.
Although it is very commendable to grow some seasonal vegetables during the rainy season, this will not provide any products costs during the dry season and will require starting from scratch the year next. So, you have to think carefully before cutting down trees or shrubs, especially those that provide shade, which retains The creation of a family garden wind or that serves as a support for a climbing plant, like pumpkin fluted. We will try to integrate them into the plan of the garden.
Creating a garden requires some planning. It is necessary to start by determining the location of the garden, we decide the best way to surround him. A fence will be quickly put in place, while it will take a while for a hedge to push and ensure good protection. If there is enough space to plant trees and shrubs, predict them fairly quickly in the planning. he is sometimes difficult to find some plants, especially those varieties improved, and the trees take some time to fruits. If there is room for only a few trees, it will still be more important to make the right choice.
Trees and shrubs are usually planted along the garden: more robust on the side from which the wind comes, the most fragile, sheltered from the wind. This leaves a clear space in the center for plants, especially the vegetables. If the garden is exposed to high winds (an example of drying winds during the dry season), a wind, composed of resistant trees and shrubs from the region, will improve clearly the growing conditions in the garden.