Table of Contents
Garden and Different types of Landscape?
Recognized Unprotected Landscapes
Some landscapes can be recognized by observers and local actors and present major landscapes issues without being protected by regulation. Preservation or management policies can be applied to specific groups or sectors with guidelines or recommendations (such as the State Territorial Interest Project on the Durance).
archaeological remains are identity marks and recognized in the landscape. Major landscapes structures. The visual fronts of the reliefs, crest line, cliff, hight, spur, plaster, Cuesta, butter with the particular silhouette, bear identity issues. Their slopes are the backgrounds, the horizons of the valleys and plains they dominate.marked by a particular scenic or heritage building element or ensemble. A perched village, the silhouette of an urban ensemble, a particular site such as a chapel or
Their ridges mark geographical or structural boundaries of different landscape areas. The stakes are related to visual perception: visibility links, belvedere sites, panoramas … The emblematic landscapes benefit from an aura related to their configuration, their physiognomy, to a cultural, cultural or social practice. These sites can be developed, frequented.
All these landscapes present major landscape issues that make it difficult the implementation of a particular activity such as a career. Previous studies should be carried out with great vigilance to take into account all the parameters before defining the feasibility of the operation. The structural or visibility links that they can maintain with a site exploitable in their neighborhood must be taken into account in preliminary studies and impact studies. It will be necessary to evaluate, illustrate these links and justify a project designed to reduce the risk of impact on these sites.
Apart from the identity landscapes recognized as emblematic, the landscape forms that make up the territory of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region can be grouped into “landscape families” with similar topography, spatial organization, and composition. These “families” each have a particular overall sensitivity to the exploitation of deposits.
The landscape of the mountainous massifs:
these are the mountains and the valleys with marked relief with natural dominance where cultures and habitats are not very extensive.These sets often constitute highly perceived visual backgrounds on the horizon of the open landscapes that surround them. The sensitivity of landscapes is related to visual perception, morphology and vegetation cover (lawn).
They depend on the configuration of the extraction site:
pouring, in the heart of the relief, at the bottom of the valley. These particular conditions make visual perception crucial.
The open landscape of the plateaus and plains:
in these flat landscapes where the views are grazing with a vast depth of visual field, the developments developed in height are essential to the site. Land use – a natural area of scrubland or woodland, agricultural area or built space – plays a major role.The quarries are exploited by overlaying the plan. The landscape issues are about operating fringes and treatment facilities as well as recomposition after exploitation.
The existence of visual masks (curtain of trees, grove, riparian forest …) can help the visual insertion. But these elements are fluctuating because of the possible evolutions (a fire can make disappear an afforestation, a hedge can be suppressed or planted). The cloisonne landscape of the plain and the valley: the agrarian landscape with the weave of their windbreak hedges compose spaces where the distant views and the visibilities are limited. Maintaining tree curtains as visual masks can allow the visual insertion.
The landscape issues of the exploitation of a quarry relate here to the related impacts close-ups The landscape created by the farm must fit into the tree structure of the hedgerow and a network of irrigation channels often present. The landscape of hill and countryside: identities of the low Provence, these characteristic but current landscapes make up a mosaic of natural spaces more or less hilly with basins and cultivated versus dotted with terraces. The villages are wedged on the ruptures of the slope not to encroach on the cultivable grounds or are perched on the heights in a former defensive concern.
They are living landscape, changing. The exploitable deposits are most often found in the reliefs. The landscape issues of the farms are related to visual relations and land use, to the proximity or remoteness of inhabited sites, to the presence of heritage sites. Urban and industrial landscapes. Extraction sites are numerous and frequent near cities, as in USA, where important quarries dominate the city. The development of the urban fabric has often joined formerly exploited sites.
These densely populated areas carry multiple challenges related to the risk of visual perception, neighborhood nuisance, and access constraints. The potentialities of reallocation of sites are multiple here. The special case of coastal landscape Famous for their light and their colors, these places present various attractions:
steep shores cut at the foot of crystalline massifs or limestone hills, sandy lidos along the coastal plains and ponds, residential and seaside areas, port areas …
They combine the stakes of natural landscape with marked relief and open with extended visual perception from the sea. Particularly important particular sensitivity factors are related to the character views and close to popular tourist sites, scenic spots and emblematic. Covisibilities are direct and extensive. The application of the “Littoral Law” distinguishes natural environments and landscape remarkable and characteristics that are protected.