Table of Contents
How to Grow Roses in Your Garden?
Roses have always added beauty and it to gardening, and in 1986 the rose became the official national floral emblem the United States. For the most enjoyment, the following tips are offered.
Select a site which gets good air circulation and at least 5 to 6 hours of sun. Dig a hole 24″ wide and 18″ to 24″ deep, amending the soil from the hole with generous quantities of organic materials such as garden compost, shredded fir bark mulch, or redwood soil conditioner. Put back enough of the amended soil so that the soil level in the pot will sit slightly above ground level on the outside. For rose in a FIBER POT, make holes in the sides and bottom of the pot.
Place the pot in the hole and fill in the remaining soil mixture in the sides and tamp into place. (The only difference for a rose in PLASTIC POT is to remove the pot immediately prior to planting. Build a tall basin around the rose, about 20″ to 24″ in diameter.
Place a 2″ to 3″ of organic mulch on top of the soil, but leave at least a 1” gap around the stem. This helps to keep the soil from crusting and aids in water penetration. (Avoid using peat moss as a mulch on top of the soil as it can pack and repel water.) Make sure that the graft is above the ground when planted. Water the rose immediately. Fill them to the brim!
WATERING, FERTILIZING AND PROMOTING FLOWERS
Roses need regular, deep irrigation. Vary watering frequency according to the weather and soil conditions as well as the maturity of the plant. The best time to water is in the morning. Soaker hoses and bubbler systems work well. Always be sure to fill the basin each time you water. For maximum flower production, roses should be fed throughout the growing season with a well-balanced, high nitrogen content fertilizer about every 4 weeks. To promote new flower buds, remove all spent blossoms. When cutting, be sure to cut the stems 1/4” above an outside leaf with at least five leaflets.
The tools used most often are heavy-duty hook and blade type shears, hook & blade type Toppers, and fine-toothed, curved pruning saws. Wearing heavy-duty gloves will protect your hands. Avoid tools which have anvil type blades as they can crush and shred the canes. To ensure clean and even cuts, the blades should always be sharp. The best choice is to select shears that have replaceable parts. For difficult to reach interior growth, a keyhole saw may also prove useful.
PRUNING BUSH AND TREE ROSES
January is usually the best time of year to prune bush and tree roses. Remove any dead, damaged, or extremely weak growth. Also, remove any branches which cross another branch or which pass through the center of the bush. Encourage vigorous new growth by removing some of the oldest
canes each year. When removing a cane, be certain to cut it flush with the bud union. Cut back remaining bush by 1/3 to 1/2 of the height of the bush, being careful to make the cuts 1/4 ” above an outside facing bud. Tree roses are also pruned this way but above the top bud union. Seal pruning cuts with Seal & Heal. One time blooming varieties should not be pruned until the plant has finished flowering for the season.
TRAINING CLIMBING ROSES
Except for the removal of dead, dying, damaged, diseased and/or crossing canes or extremely weak twiggy growth, climbers should not be pruned at all during the first two to three years. During the third year, retain only 3 or 4 vigorous young canes, and lightly shorten them to force lateral branches. Since some climbers flower on laterals formed on two to three-year-old wood, ask a salesperson for the appropriate pruning season for each variety. Seal pruning cuts with Seal & Heal. Avoid using tar-like compounds. Tying the main canes to a fan shape will direct the lateral cane to grow vertically which will flower.
DORMANT SPRAYING AND CLEAN-UP
Each January, any remaining leaves on rose bushes, rose trees, and climbers should be stripped off and discarded, not composted. Clean up all leaves and debris from the surrounding soil. Spray the entire area – plants and soil – with Disease Control.
The most common diseases are powdery mildew, rust, and black spot. Either Funginex or Orthenex can be used to provide effective control. Downy mildew can be treated with Aliette.
MOST COMMON PESTS
Aphids and spider mites can be controlled with contact sprays such as Natures Pest Fighter or systemic sprays such as Orthene. Fertilizers which contain systemic insecticides need to be reapplied frequently and are not as effective in cool weather… Cane borers can be controlled by sealing the ends of cut canes before eggs are deposited. Seal & Heal works very well. Hoplia beetles are often found on light colored flowers for several weeks in spring. These can be controlled with Orthene. Thrip damage can cause blackening of the outer petals and prevent buds from opening. Use Orthene.