Table of Contents
- 1 04 Major Types of Vegetable Gardening
- 1.1 TYPE 1: vegetable garden with a soil cover (only one crop per year)
- 1.2 TYPE 2: vegetable garden with crop rotation
- 1.3 TYPE 3: vegetable garden with plant associations
- 1.4 TYPE 4: The vegetable garden where everything is mixed
04 Major Types of Vegetable Gardening
TYPE 1: vegetable garden with a soil cover (only one crop per year)
In this type of vegetable garden, we set up a vegetable garden as it is best known, that is to say in dedicating precise zones to each culture. For example, we sow a square of carrots, another of radish, … However, we improve the system compared to a conventional vegetable garden in two ways: we will not use fertilizers or pesticides from chemistry; we will cover the soil after harvest without ever leave him naked. The ground cover will have to less than 10 centimeters thick for work well. It may consist of compost or mulching (ground cover made of inert organic material), twigs, shredded wood, fragmented rameal wood (BRF), … We generally cultivate from February to March (according to the type of plants chosen and the conditions weather in the spring) to June.
From June to September, we cover the garden with a cover of inert organic matter (shearing dried grass, dead leaves, …) and we no longer garden the garden until the following year. When we resume the sowing activities, we spread the ground cover to places intended to welcome the seeds. Then we bring it back between plants as soon as they are big enough to emerge from this protection. At the end of the winter, it is colder under the blanket ground only outside. A few days before planting, remove the soil cover for allowing the earth to warm up in contact with sunshine.
If you sow under shelter (small greenhouse) or in class to advance culture and accelerate the harvest, we also remove the ground cover a few days for the soil to warm up. Then, we transplant the young plants and bring back the ground cover between them. This system helps maintain soil fertility and to limit the growth of unwanted herbs both when one cultivates that during the period of rest.
Easy to set up for grow only during the spring season
less productive than following alternatives; we do not enjoy the garden that the time of a culture, which is less long than when growing with other types of vegetable garden described below.
TYPE 2: vegetable garden with crop rotation
This type of vegetable garden differs from the previous one because connects several cultures after each other. Crop rotations may be annual (from year to year) or made in the same year. For the annual rotation, one will cultivate a single vegetable on each parcel during the first year and each year thereafter, we change the family of vegetables. There are several ways to group the vegetables to make rotations.
The easiest way is to make groups of vegetables according to the portion consumed (leaves, roots and fruits or flowers). AT this is added a type “green manure”. This is a group of plants that maintain soil fertility and which prevents the invasion of the land by ” weeds “. These plants will not be consumed by gardeners but simply incorporated into the floor or used as a roof inert.
For rotations on the same year, we start cultivating directly after harvest former. In this second case, the soil is grown in permanently. In the best of circumstances, three crops in the year, an early spring (such as radishes or rocket, sown in April), one in end of summer (such as pumpkins seeded in April to inside and installed in May-June) and one in winter such a green manure, sown in October. In this type of vegetable garden, the ground cover is alive for a good part of the year instead to be inert. However, one can also cover soil (as in the previous model) between plants grown to protect the soil when it is too cold (under zero degrees).
The Productivity of the Garden
The productivity of the garden is increased by this a model since it will allow several harvests at different times of the year. Moreover, the control of weeds (called “Weeds“) will be facilitated, as the plants’ crops will make invasion more difficult the land only when it is left without blanket or just with an inert blanket. Be careful not to grow plants problematic as a result of the previous crop (plants from the same family, likely to spread diseases, allow a pest insect to continue its reproductive cycle and perpetuate itself on the plot, or succession of greedy plants risk of rapidly depleting the soil).
more productive than the version previous if we link the cultures food, better protects from invasion weeds, avoids the transmission of diseases and the exaggerated attack of pests crops from one year to the next.
request for information on the subject of recommended rotations and discouraged.
TYPE 3: vegetable garden with plant associations
In this type of vegetable garden, we do not cultivate the vegetable garden by plot, a square of leeks, another of carrots, … We will sow or plant crops in lines 15, 20, 25, 50 or 100 cm apart from the needs of the plants. We have, for example, line leeks next to a carrot line, followed by a line of leeks. We can also go further and alternate different kinds of vegetables within of the same line.
In addition to knowing the favorable rotations or no, it will be necessary here to inquire about the associations positive or negative existing between different plants. The typical example is to cultivate a line of onions followed by a line of carrots and then a third of onions, and so on … the smell of the carrot repels the fly undermining the harvests onions and the smell of onion repels the fly which ruins the carrots !!!.
Cultivate vegetables respecting the associations is one of the best ways not to exhaust the soil because the different plants do not take the same mineral elements in the same quantities. In addition, depending on the size of roots of each vegetable, the removal of mineral elements is done at different depths in the ground. Long-rooted plants draw on some of their nutrients in a layer of inaccessible ground for others. They bring back these minerals to the surface and make them accessible when the parts we do not consume return to the compost (or surface in the case of a mulch). Of course, we can “mix” the model vegetable garden based on rotations with the model based on associations. We must then associate plants in the same space of the kitchen garden then sow other associations at the same place to create a rotation system with positive associations between plants. That does not be more effective in maintaining the fertility of the soil and to reduce the risk of disease and pests.
much more interesting at a didactic level, as far as the positive interactions between living things the kitchen garden; to preserve soil fertility in the long run and to push back even more effectively the diseases and pests of cultures.
request a more search in depth on existing interactions between plants and between plants and other beings.
A well-known system of ecological garden growers is that developed by Gertrud Franck in Germany some 40 years ago. She developed a landscaping that took advantage of the associations between plants, especially with spinach.
- In summary, it alternates lines of vegetables spaced 50 cm apart with a line (called spacing) of spinach halfway between them and therefore 25 cm away from each line of other vegetables.
- Each year, the crops are shifted one-by-one (25 cm) and this often solves the possible problem of reflection on the appropriate rotations.
- In addition, spinach provides a number of benefits: they act as green manure, bringing the lost depth back to the surface for other more superficial root crops. they decompact the soils and improve them before other cultures they prevent certain pests can develop too easily it allows to walk between the lines where the spinach was grown since they are harvested early in the year then replaced by an inert soil cover and thus avoid packing too much soil where vegetables are planted they can be consumed.
TYPE 4: The vegetable garden where everything is mixed
This is the system closest to what you meeting in nature where plant species are often very mixed within an ecosystem. It is rare to see a forest where a single tree dominates everything, usually, several species coexist as long as the soil and climate allow to develop harmoniously. Even if sometimes one, or a small number of species, dominate an environment because the conditions relating to soil are very particular and only these plants are able to live on this type of soil.
There is a system associating trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants, called agroforestry, which allows growing both large fruit trees and small sizes and vegetables on the same ground. It is the most productive system (because it uses the space in its 3 dimensions to cultivate and produce) and it is closest to what would create the nature in most cases on good soil healthy and balanced.
This type of garden requires excellent knowledge and good planning for that each plant can grow under the conditions of light and space that suit him. For example, trees should be properly located so as not to overshadow the rest of the crops. If trees are already growing in the future kitchen garden school, it is possible to start from this situation to develop a vegetable garden in agroforestry, associating plants that need shading more important and a cooler growing medium to proximity to these. You can also use the small trunks and the branches of certain trees to guard climbing nasturtiums, peas or beans Climbing.
the most interesting at the level of interactions between plants and other beings living. The most balanced of the gardens where he is difficult for pests and diseases to spread quickly and annihilate all plants of the same species (or the same vegetable). Similarly, the more species are mixed, the less we risk exhausting the soil.
can be complicated for someone who starts because you have to be able to recognize plants at different stages of growth to identify what is what and if it is desirable to leave it in place. This is even more complicated when working with young children (difficult to put in place below 15-16 years, according to us).