Table of Contents
- 1 Use Waste To Make A Good Compost
- 1.1 The mixture of opposites
- 1.2 How and when to use his compost?
- 1.3 Qualities of compost
- 1.4 The benefits of compost
- 1.5 Best Management Practices for Food Waste Composting
- 1.6 Best Management Practices for N.H. Solid Waste Facilities
Use Waste To Make A Good Compost
The mixture of opposites
• 1/3 of green waste (fresh plants, peelings, and leftovers …) and 2/3 of brown waste (dried plants, straw, cardboard, branches …).
• 50% fine waste / 50% waste coarse. A little water but not too much!
• If pressing compost, water flows, it is too wet: add dry elements (brown waste).
• If it crumbles, add green waste or a little water.
• “Air!” mix s regularly as possible compost for good ventilation.
Balanced compost does not give off odors Stir the compost properly will allow good aeration and microorganisms will be able to work better avoid bad smells.
How and when to use his compost?
After 4 to 12 months, the materials will be transformed in compost, thanks to the intervention microorganisms and the time elapsed. When the compost is ready, you can not identify the original waste that has broken down, except perhaps egg shells or pieces of wood (if necessary you can sieve your seedling before use). He must smell the forest and have a very dark color.
Qualities of compost
Young Compost (4 to 6 months) For surface use It has high fertilizing power but requires to take some precautions: never bury it, and use it only for seedlings already well developed and demanding organic matter (tomato, pumpkin, zucchini, cabbage …).
The benefits of compost
• It improves the soil by acting on its porosity and its ability to retain minerals and water.
• It enriches the soil by bringing a large number of minerals and trace elements. His action is more durable than chemical fertilizers.
• It also promotes the biodiversity of micro-fauna.
Mature compost (9 to 12 months) Any use, surface, sowing, potting Has an amending and fertilizing effect, incorporate it on the ground when digging late autumn or late winter a few weeks before sowing. Mix it with soil to make it potting soil after sieving (1/3 of ripe compost for 2/3 of soil). spread it sifted on the lawn.
In the Kitchen Garden
• Spread up to 3 to 5 kg / m2 in preparation for the land.
• Ideal also for sowing and planting that you can cover from 2 to 3 mm compost.
In your Planters
• Deposit 3 to 4 mm of clay bottom of the pot then prepare a mixture of 40% earth and 60% compost.
In your Greenspaces
• In maintenance for your lawns, to fall after the last mowing and the passage of the aerator roller spread a mixture of 1/3 of sand and 2/3 of compost from 2 to 4 kg / m2. Your lawn “Will leave more beautiful” in the spring.
• At the foot of your plantations (shrubs, trees, rose bushes) spread a thin layer of compost, scratch, and water.
Composting is an excellent way to manage food waste. Like leaf and yard waste composting, compost from food waste is a valuable soil amendment. When added to gardens and lawns, finished compost will increase soil moisture retention, provide additional nutrients, and reduce the need for chemical fertilizers.
Composting food waste reduces the quantity of waste disposed of in landfills and incinerators and saves money. In rural communities especially, residents can easily compost food waste on their own property, with or without their yard waste. This activity does not require a permit. Food waste can also be composted at centralized facilities, such as solid waste transfer stations, with a permit.
As with leaf and yard waste composting, it is important to understand the basic science of composting in order to achieve a high quality finished compost without producing adverse effects, such as odors, and without attracting rodents, flies and other pests. See table on the reverse side. Also, read the Leaf & Yard Waste Composting BMP Guidance Sheet to learn more about the science of composting. It is also important to understand certain terminology,
including Composting Terms & Definitions
• Feedstock – the mixture of organic wastes brought to your facility for composting.
• Greens – organic wastes high in nitrogen (green grass and leaves, food waste, and garden cuttings.
• Browns – organic wastes high in carbon (autumn leaves, wood chips or sawdust).
• Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio (C: N ratio) – the balance of energy and nutrients needed by microorganisms.
• Windrow – a pile with a shorter height and width, but greater length (example: 8’ by 12’ by 60’).
• Plant Pathogens – microscopic organisms such as bacteria and viruses that are harmful to other plants.
Best Management Practices for Food Waste Composting
The following BMPs may differ, depending on whether you use windrow, static pile, or in-vessel methods.
• Mix roughly equal amounts by weight of browns and greens to provide the proper 30:1 C: N ratio.
• Do not leave food waste uncovered for more than 2 hours and blend all food waste into a window within 24 hours after its arrival, or store the food waste in a closed container to avoid odors and pests (birds, rodents, etc.).
• Routinely turn each windrow or pile to maintain aerobic (oxygen-rich) conditions.
• Do not turn windrows during cold winter days or during rainstorms.
Best Management Practices for N.H. Solid Waste Facilities
Food Waste Composting Did You Know?
• Bacteria are the most important component of the composting process.
• Chopping up all the compost ingredients into pieces less than 2 inches in size will speed up the composting process.
• Charcoal and wood ash can be used to control odors during the composting process; however, too much ash can harm plants grown in the compost.
Compost piles are too close to one another and too tall.
Poor drainage is allowing water to accumulate between windows.
• Consider applying water after windy days as windrows may have become too dry.
• It can take two or more days for compost piles kept at temperatures greater than 140°F to kill weed seeds and plant pathogens; at temperatures above 155°F, it may take only a few hours. However, do not allow windrow temperatures to remain above 155°F for more than a few hours, as beneficial organisms will also begin to die.
• Periodically check moisture levels. Grab a handful of compost from inside the pile and squeeze. If it drips, it is too wet, in which case add more dry material and turn the pile. If it is damp but does not drip when you do the squeeze test, it is about right.
• Pile heights can vary based on the amount of space and type of equipment available, but should not be more than 10 feet.
• Do not compost domestic animal fecal matter. It may contain viruses that will not be killed during the composting process.
• Do not compost feedstock containing weeds that have gone to seed because they may survive the composting process.
• Allow the compost to mature/stabilize until it no longer reheats after turning. It should have a dark brown to black color, a crumbly cake-like texture, and an earthy odor.
• If considering composting sludge or septage, you must comply with the NHDES sludge and septage