Horticulture And Ornamental Plants
ornamental plant, we mean all plants grown in private or public
plots for its ornamental qualities, rather than for its commercial
value. Plants and ornamental trees are distinguished from plants
for economic production, which are the object of agriculture or
forestry. This does not preclude, however, that a particular
species may be both the object of economic culture and appreciated
in a garden for its ornamental qualities.
Ornamental plants in the
DRC is rich from ornamental plants that grow spontaneously. The
introduction of horticultural activities in the garden began at the
end of the 18th century with the creation of the Kisantu test
garden and the Eala botanical garden (in Ecuador). At the same
time, the AIKEN colonial garden is organized. These 3 institutions
had a major concern to test economically interesting ornamental
plants. Catholic missionaries have also greatly contributed to the
development of floriculture in the garden.
enthusiasm for floriculture during the colonial period was such
that several horticultural enterprises were born: Mr. LEROX (in
Kivu), Mrs. BRUN and VANDEN DRIES in Kinshasa, Mrs. DRICOT in
Kalemie, Mrs. MENDIAUX in Goma.
independence, however, there was a decline in horticultural
activities in the country as a result of the departure of most
settlers. So today, ornamental plants are not yet exploited as in
some African countries.
Importance of Ornamental Plants
from several functions played by plants in the environment,
ornamental plants have a more particular role in the life of man,
namely aesthetics. They play especially a role in the psychic
balance of the man. The importance of ornamental plants is as much
on man as on the economic point of view, especially in the large
modern cities where the process of rapid urbanization has caused
collective dwellings and large constructions to spring from the
Ornamental plants can belong to different
categories depending on the desired effect and the location in
which it is desired to grow them. It can be herbaceous, annual,
biennial or perennial plants,
woody plants, trees, shrubs, climbing plants or falling foliage.
Some ornamental plants are grown both for landscaping purposes and
for cut flowers or foliage. Some plants become ornamental only
dried or under the action of a particular action of the gardener.
This is the case for example shrubs grown for topiary art that lose
their ornamental character in the absence of regular sizes. The
same is true of grass grasses that must be
Ornamental plants are grown outdoors (in public or private
gardens and parks) for which are most often used, or indoors (in
the apartment, corridor, balcony …). Ornamental outdoor plants are
most often grown for their flowers and more for their foliage, but
other qualities of ornament can be sought, including for example
the ornamentation plants of parks and , the plants used have very often a horticultural
origin. Unlike botanical species that grow spontaneously in nature,
so-called “horticultural” plants are artificial creations.
Generally, they are the result of multiple and voluntary
hybridizations whose objective is to obtain new forms, called
cultivars, to meet certain criteria
– the improvement of flowering (size, color, holding, a shape of the flowers),
– resistance to diseases and parasites,
– adaptation to different climates and environments (improvement of hardiness),
– the aesthetic and landscape quality.
Vegetative propagation (cuttings, grafting, tufa division, layering) is very often the only method to faithfully reproduce horticultural plants.
In the center of the garden, dahlias, irises, and daylilies are presented alternately in long flowerbeds, drawing a palette with changing colors according to the seasons. The association of these different plants offers blooms from May until the first frosts.
dahlia is one of the most used ornamental plants for summer and
autumn flowering gardens. Thousands of existing cultivars offer a
diversity of shapes, sizes, and colors unparalleled.
Because of its wild origins (Mexico, Guatemala), the dahlia is not a rustic plant in our climate. The underground part, consisting of tuberous roots (the “tubercle”) must be wintered away from frost.
iris is a perennial plant abundantly found in
gardens. Its easy cultivation, however, requires sunny exposure
and permeable soil. Its flowering takes place in May. It is brief
but very abundant.
The multiplication of irises is simple. It is done by a division of the rhizomes.
Several centuries of hybridization have resulted in the creation of thousands of varieties whose classification is often difficult.
The collection of the Jean-Marie Pelt Botanical Garden gathers mainly hybrids of the group “pogonoris” (the irises of the gardens), recognizable by the presence of beards (hairy zone) on the upper part of the sepals.
daylily is a perennial plant native to Asia, cultivated in China
and Japan for several centuries. In the wild, 15 species have been
described. So we meet in a culture mostly hybrids.
Daylilies are popular for large yellow, orange, red or pink flowers, which bloom throughout the summer. You can count up to 35 buttons per rod. It is an excellent flower to cut.
Sometimes called the orchid of the poor, the daylily is a very easy plant to cultivate, requiring a few hours of sunshine and well-drained soil.